MPDSEVO - Photochemical process development

How you can develop photochemical processes reliably and scale it up to industrial scale

MPDS, which stands for „Modular Photochemical Development System“ describes the modular system as standard for photochemical experiments in the lab. The MPDSEVO is an automated process development system for qualified investigation of photochemical reactions with the aim of up-scaling new processes or optimizing existing reactions and photo-reactors.

Process development and up-scaling can be easy


The implementation of a photochemical process from the laboratory to production scale is impossible without the prior investigation of fundamental photochemical process parameters. By using the MPDSEVO in miniplant technology at the lab it is now possible to determine all photo-chemically relevant process parameters, such as the space-time yield, reaction kinetics, selection of suitable solvents, concentration and spectral absorption coefficient, optical path, etc. in a structured and reproducible way under supervision. In addition, different photochemical process methods can be compared and evaluated side by side. Only with the obtained fundamental process parameters, the feasibility and cost of photochemical processes can are assessed (CAPEX / OPEX). By use of the unique easy-up-scaling radiation sources with stepless power regulation, which are part of the MPDSEVO system, it is possible to select the correct application optimized industrial photo-reactor out of the portfolio of Peschl Ultraviolet GmbH and thus it is easy to transfer the process into commercial scale. Photochemical reactions which are already performed in industrial scale can be traced and afterwards optimized in detail in the laboratory (down-scaling). Using the reaction optimized and safe photo-reactors of Peschl Ultraviolet, you are getting a highly efficient photochemical production plant with exceptional productivity.MPDSEVO
 

Automated process development


The MPDSEVO is equipped with the intelligent processCONTROL PLC-system and operated via the integrated touch panel. MPDSEVO processCONTROLIn addition to the manual control of each individual aggregate, experiments can be performed in automatic mode, following a systematic sequence. This avoids errors and quickly leads to reproducible results.
   

Precise spectral measurement


The determination of the spectral characteristics plays the most important role in connection with the chemical reaction. Therefore, we provide flexible “plug and play” photo-spectrometer, spectralradiometer and radiometer for precise online measurement. All photoreactors of the MPDS toolbox are equipped with a standardized measuring point. Acquisition of the measurement values and their UV-Sensorstorage in a database are realized by an “Windows 7 Embedded” PC with touch display, which is built into the spectroSENSE rack module and ready for operation. The data can be easily exported via USB for further revision. 
        

MPDSEVO Photo-reactor basic systems


MPDSEVO AOP Advanced Oxidation Process setup MPDSEVO Falling film photoreactor setup
MPDSEVO AOP MPDSEVO Falling film
description

MPDSEVO AOP

It is common knowledge that no one portion of wastewater is exactly identical to any other in terms of composition. For this reason, industrial-scale photochemical treatment of wastewater requires detailed preliminary laboratory investigations, which involve comparing the various photochemical methods available for wastewater treatment and determining the respectively relevant photochemical process parameters. This assessment is mandatory in each individual case.

The requirements for a photoreactor for “Advanced Oxidation Processes” (AOPs) vary based on the photochemical methods applied and require the photoreactor to be adapted to the prevailing circumstances to facilitate further process development and achieve optimal results.

The MPDSEVO – AOP photoreactor is the product of extensive experience and specialist knowledge accumulated over years and from dozens of special UV applications and reflects the very latest technology. Painstaking development work has produced a patented and all-new reactor design with outstanding properties, which paves the way for simple, structured and reproducible development of photochemical reactions for optimally accurate wastewater treatment.

The vertical annular photoreactor made of borosilicate glass is equipped with a synthetic quartz glass sheathing tube, which allows high transmission less 200nm. The sheathing tube is replaceable and available in a range of diameters, allowing you to configure the respectively optimal optical route. Depending on the methods used, various radiation sources from the VUV range up to the visible range can be used. The unique easy-upscaling radiation sources allow analysis of the energy requirement, this means the initial rough cost estimate can also be established (CAPEX / OPEX). The ability to purge the immersion tube with  inert gas helps to avoid any build-up of ozone and resulting unwanted absorptions. Any educt is tangentially released and generates an optimally abrasive rotational flow given corresponding volume, which reduces the formation of deposits efficiently by leveraging polymerisation effects. There is also the option of including an external cooling jacket on the reactor, if there is a need to thermally stabilise the reactor. H2O2 can be continually injected into the photoreactor, while gases and liquids can be added at any stage of the photoreactor process, to obtain a stable concentration of oxygen and peroxides in the reaction zone. Upon request, a metal-free and totally corrosion-resistant version of the photoreactor can be supplied, which would also allow a range of synthesis reactions as well as TOC decomposition in the ultra-pure water range for the semiconductor industry. It is easy to dismantle the photoreactor or clean it using the CIP method.

The AOP photoreactor breaks new ground in allowing the entire range of photochemical AOP methods to be compared and the relevant laboratory results determined, which helps the user selecting the ideal industrial system from the Peschl Ultraviolet GmbH product range and handle the target volume flow efficiently on an industrial scale.

Typical applications:

  • Elimination of pharmaceuticals and pesticides
  • TOC reduction
  • Pre-treatment of non-biodegradable
  • wastewater prior to biotreatment
  • Decomposition of organohalogenated compounds
  • Cyanide degradation in the galvanic industry
  • Treating industrial wastewater with a COD value of up to 5,000 mg/l

description

MPDSEVO Falling film

The efficient irradiation of liquids with low transmission (optical permeability) represents a hitherto unresolved challenge in some photochemical processes.

If there is a lack of penetrative depth, photons are absorbed directly at the boundary surface, the optical path of conventional reactors is not utilised, and a direct full absorption and in consequence an inefficient process occurs. Furthermore, and in particular in the case of photolyses and photochemically initiated reactions where radical intermediates are formed, mostly macromolecular secondary products can form which are deposited on the surface of the immersion lamp system (“filming”). These deposits additionally absorb the photons and in extreme cases can lead to overheating of a conventional photoreactor.

The falling film photoreactor from Peschl Ultraviolet GmbH has a special design that permits efficient irradiation of liquids with low transmission in the form of an even falling film with high turbulence and low layer thickness. Deposits on the jacket tube are prevented by the design, as the liquid film does not come into contact with the immersion lamp system.

With the falling film photoreactor the desired turbulence for the exchange of material at the boundary surface has already been reached with a Reynolds number of Re > 400 and requires no high flow rates. The favourable design of the overflow edge prevents tearing off of the film and heavily simplifies levelling. In direct comparison to an annular thin layer photoreactor, the advantage of the falling film photoreactor for liquids with low transmission becomes obvious. The advantageously long residence time in the photoreactor is heavily limited in a thin layer photoreactor by the high flow rate required to achieve turbulence, while in the falling film photoreactor this is considerably extended. This is of crucial advantage for the efficiency of the reaction.

The falling film photoreactor from Peschl Ultraviolet GmbH has been optimised in such a way that the size of the irradiated surface (cm²) in relation to the intensity generated in the distance to the radiation source is ideal for most reactions. Since the immersion lamp system is not in direct contact with the reaction medium, photochemical and thermal polymerisations on the surface of the jacket tube are prevented.

As the falling film photoreactor is a completely closed apparatus, gas diffusion can be simply achieved, gas consumption can be determined and the gas development in a photochemical reaction can be very closely followed.

The photoreactor can be cleaned simply and unproblematically without the use of tools. The reservoir is a component separated from the falling film reactor, so that connections to a wide range of reaction volumes are possible. The falling film photoreactor has been optimised for increased efficiency for the MPDSBASIC system in such a way that it works according to the double chamber principle and the radiation that is not completely absorbed in the falling film is utilised in the head of the reaction medium. The reactor can optionally be supplied with a temperature control cladding through which a reaction can be cooled or heated in the range from -80ºC to +120ºC.

The falling film photoreactor from Peschl Ultraviolet GmbH means that photochemical reactions can now be efficiently carried out even with liquids without appreciable transmission.

 
 
 
MPDSEVO Side Loop photoreactor setup MPDSEVO Batch Photoreactor - Low transmission setup
MPDSEVO Side Loop MPDSEVO Batch - Low transmission
description

MPDSEVO Side Loop

The limitation of discontinuous reactors (batch reactors) lies in their lack of precise reaction control and imprecise temperature management. Also, the photons’ penetration depth can frequently be limited due to absorption, whereby no optimum photochemical reaction can take place.

In principle, photochemical reactions can be developed in the batch, semi-batch or conti-flow procedure. Each of the operating modes has advantages and disadvantages which must be taken into consideration based on the sought-after reaction. Batch reactors can only be safely scaled to industrial sizes with increased time and effort, while semi-batch reactors greatly simplify this procedure since the kinetics in the photoreactor can be analysed, understood and taken into consideration.

To this end, Peschl Ultraviolet GmbH has developed an optimised side-loop photoreactor, which can be used in the classic way as a semi-batch photoreactor and in conti-flow mode. In some cases, it is appropriate to cascade these side-loop photoreactors so as to achieve an ideal space-time yield with maximum energy utilisation and controllable process conditions.

The optimised side-loop photoreactor is operated in a vertical set-up and takes up very little floor space. This means it can be operated in the safety cabinet. Depending on its design, the side-loop photoreactor can be gassed. Ventilation is not necessary due to the advantageous design. Also, there is no need to use siphon lines at the flow line or return line to avoid emptying, because no deposits are created on the boundary surface as a result of insufficient ventilation. The reaction is evenly circulated and has a constant dwell time in the irradiation zone. The upstream flow in the base makes it possible to run very low flow velocities to both determine and analyse the limits to over-irradiation. Tangential introduction allows for a high level of turbulence to be generated in the next step. The use of the MPDS cladding tube system means that the optical path and the usable volume can be adjusted by means of different combinations. When implemented in conjunction with a large HR insert, the side-loop photoreactor can be used as a thin-layer system with a high level of turbulence. External cooling, which is available as an option, enables the reactor’s temperature to be controlled. As with every MPDS photoreactor, the standardised measuring point is included for further analysis.

The side-loop photoreactor from Peschl Ultraviolet GmbH enables users to perform photochemical reactions in the side-loop procedure and was developed for routine operation – both for preparative and for kinetic and thermochemical examinations in the laboratory.

The use of an extremely wide range of lamps (mercury-vapour, low-pressure immersion lamps; mercury-vapour, medium-pressure immersion lamps and Xenon immersion lamps) translates into a wide range of spectral frequencies which can be selected for the reaction.

The following aspects of this photoreactor are beneficial:

  • Controlled thermal conditions
  • Controlled flow rate
  • Controlled conversion rate and analysis of the reaction kinetics
  • Long dwell time
  • High level of material exchange
  • Transmission up to the UVC range
  • Chemically inert and stable
  • Different optical paths can be set
  • Thin-layer operation possible
description

MPDSEVO Batch - Low transmission

The selection of a suitable photoreactor is fundamentally dependent on the requirements of chemical reactions and physical properties of reactants. Using a photoreactor with a low optical path length is necessary, especially for liquids with a molar extinction coefficient of more than 30 m-1. This photoreactor is developed for this purpose. When operating at low process volumes and optical path lengths lower than 2 cm, it is necessary to ensure thorough mixing of the medium. A conventional magnetic stir bar is unsuitable for use in this case because the vortex generated in the annular gap does not allow for the exchange of substances between different levels.

This photoreactor is therefore equipped with an integrated magnetic drive circulation pump, which provides thorough mixing of reactants when used together with a lateral riser pipe. The magnetic drive circulation pump is made of durable and chemically inert materials and can be easily removed from the photoreactor for cleaning. Like all other photoreactors of the MPDS Toolbox, this photoreactor is equipped with a sensor port. Length of reaction times can be freely determined, so that a high yield, close to that at equilibrium, is guaranteed.

The photoreactor‘s high efficiency and simple handling make it a universal standard for use in research and development.

 
 
MPDSEVO Batch Photoreactor - High transmission setup MPDSEVO Mckro photoreactor with UV LED - setup
MPDSEVO Batch - High transmission
MPDSEVO Micro LED
description

MPDSEVO Batch - High transmission

The world’s bestselling batch photoreactor is particularly suitable for carrying out simple basic photochemical research with a product volume of approx. 400-700 ml and is mentioned in many publications. Its simple design makes this photoreactor a universal, flexible standard photoreactor for liquids in which the absorption of the reaction medium is not particularly high and the specific demands on the photoreactor cannot be more closely defined in advance.

The optical path of less 2 cm makes it possible to mix the reaction medium with a conventional magnetic stir bar. The corresponding magnetic stir bar creates the condition for a complete and proper mixing of the reaction medium. This allows reactions with a high transmission to be irradiated unproblematically in the course of a process development phase.

Optionally the photoreactor can be heated or cooled down by means of a temperature control cladding. The sensor port permits the irradiation physics of the system to be measured by the appropriate spectrometer.

The reaction times can be set at any frequency, which ensures a high product turnover close to equilibrium.

description

MPDSEVO Micro LED

Batch reactors are limited in their lack of accurate reaction control and their inaccurate temperature management. Furthermore, the penetration depth of photons can often be limited due to absorption, thus an optimal photochemical reaction cannot take place.

Conti Flow microphotoreactors from Peschl Ultraviolet GmbH resolve these limitations and enable controlled implementation of photochemically initiated reactions.

Due to the continuous operating mode, the reaction kinetics can be optimally configured and precisely analysed in conjunction with an online analysis. The Conti Flow operation facilitates the development of the reaction or the optimisation of existing processes because the reaction can be traced accurately from start to finish. This allows the simple, yet highly accurate, control of photochemical reactions. The potential formation of by-products due to excess exposure, for example, can be traced exactly.
Although planar microphotoreactors exhibit reflection losses when coupling the radiation, which leads to a decrease in efficiency of the system, they have some key advantages and are often the method of choice.
The optimised mixed structures enable the formation of an extremely low coefficient of dispersion and ensure a highly efficient mixing of the reaction.

In combination with the innovative novaLIGHT FLED400 LED radiation sources, photochemical reactions can be performed in a wavelength-selective and energy-efficient manner. The continuous power control of the LEDs allows the accurate adjustment of the radiant flux to the requirements of the reaction. Thus the power consumption of the LED light source can be compared directly with a mercury vapour medium pressure radiation source (novaLIGHT FMP250).

Due to the high pressure resistance, higher flow rates can be driven in the planar microphotoreactor than would be possible with a tube reactor.
The microphotoreactors from Peschl Ultraviolet GmbH were designed specifically to meet the requirements of the photochemistry equipment.

They are available in borosilicate 3.3 and, for the first time, in quartz glass. The use of quartz glass as a reactor material in combination with LED light sources is not yet state-of-the-art since commercially available LED chips les 350nm, were currently defined as non-usable due, among other things, to their limited service life. The microphotoreactor made of quartz glass is nevertheless useful in conjunction with a medium pressure radiation source (novaLIGHT FMP250), since quartz glass allows the performance of photochemical reactions les 310nm. This fact makes the microphotoreactor from the MPDS modular system suitable for universal use and resolves existing restrictions in the market.

A bracket made of PTFE and stainless steel is used to record the microphotoreactor cell and its connection to the pump and the cooling circuit via HPLC connections and perfluorinated tubes. When designing, importance is attached to a robust design which takes into account the requirements of glass equipment in terms of good stress distribution on the glass cell.

The small reaction volume in the microphotoreactor can heat up due to the energy of the photons that are introduced. Thus the microphotoreactors from Peschl Ultraviolet GmbH were provided with an efficient cross-flow cooling on the back of the photoreactor cell to enable the reaction liquid to be thermally stabilised.

For conventional photoreactors, up-scaling is not performed primarily by scaling, but by multiplying the reaction systems until the output per unit of time (numbering-up) is achieved. For economic reasons, however, a certain „up-scaling“ of photoreactors is often also required in the „numbering-up“ in order to limit the number of photoreactors and the related costs of the infrastructure. Here, the planar microphotoreactor has advantages over the tube reactor because the resulting pressure loss during an enlargement of the format does not pose a significant problem due to the high pressure resistance.

The LED light sources can also be adjusted in size in a modular manner to the format of the reactor cells, thus enabling the construction of industrially suited microphotoreactor systems.

This type of process development makes it possible to scale laboratory results relatively risk-free in systems in order to achieve the target output.

The following aspects of this photoreactor are advantageous:

  • Controlled thermal conditions
  • Controlled flow rate
  • Controlled conversion rate and analysis of reaction kinetics
  • Long retention time
  • High mass transfer in the photoreactor
  • Chemically inert and stable
  • Use of monochromatic LED light sources
  • Customised reaction-optimised structure development is possible

 
 
MPDSEVO Micro photoreactor with Medium pressure lamp - setup
MPDSEVO Micro Medium pressure
description

MPDSEVO Micro Medium pressure

Batch reactors are limited in their lack of accurate reaction control and their inaccurate temperature management. Furthermore, the penetration depth of photons can often be limited due to absorption, thus an optimal photochemical reaction cannot take place.

Conti Flow microphotoreactors from Peschl Ultraviolet GmbH resolve these limitations and enable controlled implementation of photochemically initiated reactions.

Due to the continuous operating mode, the reaction kinetics can be optimally configured and precisely analysed in conjunction with an online analysis. The Conti Flow operation facilitates the development of the reaction or the optimisation of existing processes because the reaction can be traced accurately from start to finish. This allows the simple, yet highly accurate, control of photochemical reactions. The potential formation of by-products due to excess exposure, for example, can be traced exactly.
Although planar microphotoreactors exhibit reflection losses when coupling the radiation, which leads to a decrease in efficiency of the system, they have some key advantages and are often the method of choice for basic experiments.

The optimised mixed structures enable the formation of an extremely low coefficient of dispersion and ensure a highly efficient mixing of the reaction.

When combined with the irradiation module novaLIGHT FMP250, the planar microphotoreactor enables a precise wavelength screening using filters and constitutes an important tool in the process development of photochemical reactions. By using interchangeable filters, the mercury spectrum can be viewed and evaluated in the absorption range of the reaction medium. The development of secondary reactions or of adverse photochemically initiated polymerisation effects can thus be precisely identified and analysed. This provides important parameters for selecting the optimal radiation source or data on edge filters or filter liquids that may be required.
Due to the high pressure resistance, higher flow rates can be driven in the planar microphotoreactor than would be possible with a tube reactor.

The microphotoreactors from Peschl Ultraviolet GmbH were designed specifically to meet the requirements of the photochemistry equipment.

They are available in borosilicate 3.3 and, for the first time, in quartz glass. The use of quartz glass as a reactor material is highly innovative and allows the implementation of photochemical reactions less 310nm. This fact makes the microphotoreactor from the MPDS modular system suitable for universal use and resolves existing restrictions in the market.

A bracket made of PTFE and stainless steel is used to hold the microphotoreactor cell and its connection to the pump and the cooling circuit via HPLC connections and perfluorinated tubes. When designing, importance is attached to a robust design which takes into account the requirements of glass equipment in terms of good stress distribution on the glass cell.

The small reaction volume in the microphotoreactor can heat up due to the energy of the photons that are introduced. Thus the microphotoreactors from Peschl Ultraviolet GmbH were provided with an efficient cross-flow cooling on the back of the photoreactor cell to enable the reaction liquid to be thermally stabilised. The band-pass filters used in the radiation module are sensitive to temperature. Therefore, the medium pressure radiation source used in the novaLIGHT FMP250 is air-cooled and the filter is thus thermally insulated.

For conventional photoreactors, up-scaling is not performed primarily by scaling, but by multiplying the reaction systems until the output per unit of time (numbering-up) is achieved. For economic reasons, however, a certain „up-scaling“ of photoreactors is often also required in the „numbering-up“ in order to limit the number of photoreactors and the related costs of the infrastructure. Here, the planar microphotoreactor has advantages over the tube reactor because the resulting pressure loss during an enlargement of the format does not pose a significant problem due to the high pressure resistance.
This type of process development makes it possible to scale laboratory results relatively risk-free in systems in order to achieve the target output.

The following aspects of this photoreactor are advantageous:

  • Controlled thermal conditions
  • Controlled flow rate
  • Controlled conversion rate and analysis of reaction kinetics
  • Long retention time
  • High mass transfer in the photoreactor
  • Transmission into the UVC range
  • Chemically inert and stable
  • Possible wavelength screening
  • Customised reaction-optimised structure development is possible
 
 

All photochemically relevant wavelengths


We supply all types of lamps and doping as standard products. This means that we cover the entire spectral frequency range for the photochemistry in use, both polychromatically or monochromatically. Innovative light sources such as xenon radiation sources or LEDs represent the cutting edge of technology in our photo-reactors. We essentially supply the relevant spectral energy distribution data for all radiation sources.
  

MPDS uv radiation sources

    

Choose the appropriate standard photoreactor


From batch to semi-batch through to Conti Flow photo-reactors, we supply the entire range as standard. This includes falling film photo-reactors, tubular photo-reactors, side-loop photo-reactors and micro photo-reactors. Depending on the application, you can choose from photo-reactors with a volume of 2 ml to 5000 ml for laboratory trials.

UV photoreactors

overview radiation sources

Extensive filter systems


Alongside standardised optical edge filters and filter liquids, we also provide the option of insulating individual wavelengths for screening by means of band-pass filters. This makes it possible to determine their relevance for the photochemical reaction and recognise any unwanted secondary reactions.

Filter UV spectra

Thermal decoupling decides


Alongside cold radiation sources, a sophisticated, modular cladding tube system is available for the thermal decoupling of the lamp from the reaction medium. The innovative MPDS screwing system prevents glass fastening elements from caking and can be applied with a maximum pressure of 0.5 bar. The diameters of the cladding tubes are optimised for photochemical reactions. Easy to clean thanks to fully demountable cladding tubes instead of double wall sleeves that are merged together, perfectly suited to CIP cleaning.

UV-Reactor

   

Safe to operate and yet practical to use


MPDSEVO process developmenl systemUse of protective casing is compulsory so as to comply with the legal industrial safety requirements. It is completely safe to perform photochemistry in the photonCABINET (safety cabinet) and yet still practical. Special attention was paid to simple sampling and the uncomplicated insertion of sensors and actors such as stirring tables and dosing pumps. For example, encoded connectors ensure the correct electrical connection. The standard photoreactor systems are supplied fully wired and can be used immediately. With a footprint of 470 x 1410 mm only, the system takes little space on the bench and still fits into a standard fume hood.

Modular system


Photoreactors, cladding tubes and radiation sources are compatible with each other in the modular system and are therefore interchangeable. Application-optimised photoreactors can be exchanged cost-efficiently, while the lamps and cladding tubes can be retained. By freely positioning the radiation sources in the cladding tube using the innovative high-tension mechanism, it is possible to use the components in a range of different sized photoreactors. An extensive product range of perfectly matching components, such as chemically resistant process and metering pumps, agitators, various sensors – e.g. for flow, temperature, pH / redox – as well as jacketed vessels are available in the modular system. Thus we offer a customizable and expandable process development system that you can use right away.

cladding tubes & cooler

overview cladding tubes & cooler

 

Safety & Functionality


The MPDSEVO Set includes the photonCABINET which is a double walled, light-proof protective cabinet made of stainless steel. I fulfills the legal requirements for personal safety agains optical radiation and protects surrounding materials against aging. The photonCABINET it is the only product on the market that meets the high requirements of the applicable standards, is CE compliant and also practicable and functional for operators. The necessary measures implemented for having a safe and functional product are well designed and protected by international patents.

UV radiation is harmful to eyes and skin and can cause irreparable personal injury. Furthermore materials in the ambient exposed to the UV radiation, will undergo an accelerated aging and can be destroyed. Medium pressure radiation sources have a surface temperature of up to 850° C and operate with lethal high voltage. Solvents may not present a explosion hazard for the user. The operation of photoreactors without optical protective device equipped with safety lock (aluminum foil, acrylic glass) is not allowed since the related normative standard was becoming mandatory (01.10.2013). In addition the risk analysis in accordance with EN ISO 12100 confirm, that an operation without safety cabinet is no longer sufficient and does not meet the requirements to protect employees by the owner / operator of the lab, who can be fully accountable and responsible for personal injury.

Ultraviolet process development

Therefore photoreactors of the MPDS modular system always come along initially with the light-proof protective cabinet, which moreover provide the electrical power to the electronic power supplies for operating the radiation sources. Photochemical experiments are therefore absolutely safe. The unique photonCABINET is practicable, easy to use and inexpensive to purchase.

       

We will not leave you alone!


In addition to our turnkey process development systems, profound, scientifically substantiated consultancy services in the field of applied photochemistry might be required as a service. Together with our cooperation partner “Oliveros Consulting” (Prof. E. Oliveros and Prof. A.M. Braun), we are able to transfer comprehensive and detailed knowledge of photochemical process technology and offer the assistance during your process development phase on advisory basis upon request.

 

More information and advice


We are pleased to give you more information and help in configuring the MPDSEVO.
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